pose, present, create, give rise to: Wild pigs pose a threat to the native plants of the Hawaiian islands.

assorted, various, varied, diverse: The assorted cultures of New York City are signs of its mixed population.

ruthlessly, without mercy, relentlessly, cruelly: European explorers ruthlessly took Native American land.

precarious, unstable, insecure, uncertain: The stock’s recent fall put investors in a precarious position.

converse, opposite, reverse: John and his brother are very different, and they often hold converse content.

vicinity, neighborhood, area: There are a lot of historical buildings in the vicinity of Buckingham Palace.

prodigious, massive, enormous: Beavers store prodigious amounts of food to survice the harsh winter.

incessantly, constantly, continously, persistently: Patton had to incessantly plead with Congress for equipment for his army.

appeal, plead, request, ask, beg: The students plead to the professor for more time to study for the exam.

steadfastly, firmly, solidly, resolutely: Einstein steadfastly believed that the universe was eternal and refused to consider the Big Bang theory plausible.

penchant, inclination, tendency, fondness, liking: Louis XIV’s penchant for spending without limits left France with huge debts.

incipient, initial, beginning: If diagnosed in its incipient stages, cancer is treatable in a large number of cases.

subject to, susceptible to, likely to: Many orchids are sensitive to cold and subject to the slightest changes in temperature.

deter, stop, preclude, prevent, inhibit: Slavery deterred the development of a just and equal society.

preclude, prevent, stop, hinder: According to Adam Smith, the feudal system precluded economic progress.

preclude, rule out, exclude: Sherlock Holmes always said that once you preclude all impossibilities, whatever is left is the answer.

roundabout, indirect, circuitous: Many commuters use roundabout routes to avoid traffic congestion.

dubious, suspected suspicous, distrustful, questionable, Joshph’s alibi seemed highly dubious, so the police took him in for questioning

eminent, distinguished, outstanding, prominent: Stephen Hawking is one of the most eminent physicals to have ever lived.

reckless, careless, heedless, inadvertent: Tom’s reckless driving caused the accident.

heed, attention, notice, caution: If Nancy had paid heed to the warning, she wouldn’t have fallen off the platform.

inadvertent, unintentionally, accidentally, unwittingly: Grace inadvertently deleted the accounting files from her computer.

dismiss, ignore, disregard: William Blacke’s poetry is famous today, but his contemporaries largely dismissed his work.


to 부정사

to 부정사의 의미상 주어

The aim of the seminar was for the employees to enhance communication skills.

to 부정사를 목적격 보어로 갖는 동사

advise 목 to, allow 목 to, ask 목 to, cause 목 to, enable 목 to, encourage 목 to, expect 목 to, invite 목 to, need 목 to, permit 목 to, require 목 to, want 목 to

The manager needed the worker to hand in a leave request form.

원형 부정사를 목적격 보어로 갖는 동사

make, let, have

The coordinator lets employees to take four 15 minutes breaks per day

help (원형, to 둘다 가능)

The bank manager helped Mr. Cohen (to) complete the application

see, hear, watch, notice (원형, ing 둘다 가능)

Mr. Martinez saw the technical support staff move (moving) the computers



동명사의 의미상 주어 (앞에 명사나 대명사의 소유격)

The business community supports the mayor’s running for re-election

동명사를 목적어로 갖는 동사

avoid ~ing, consider ~ing, enjoy ~ing, finish ~ing, mind ~ing, postpone ~ing, recommend ~ing, suggest ~ing,

동명사, to부정사 둘다 가능

attempt ~ing/to, begin ~ing/to, continue ~ing/to, intent ~ing/to, like ~ing/to, prefer ~ing/to

동명사 관련 표현

be busy (i) ~ing ~하느라 바빳다, be worth ~ing ~할 가치가 있다, have difficulty (trouble, a problem) (in) ~ing ~하는데 어려움을 겪다, keep (on) ~ing 계속 ~하다, on/upon ~ing 하자마자, spend + 시간/돈 + ~ing 시간/돈을 ~하는데 쓰다

Mr. Glover says he will keep on revising the budget proposal until the end of the month

They will need to spend more time completing the sales report

전치사 to + ing 표현

be committed to ~ing ~에 전념하다, be dedicated ~ing ~에 헌신적이다, be devoted to ~ing ~에 헌신적이다, be used to ~ing ~에 익숙하다, contribute to ~ing, lead to ~ing ~의 원인이 되다, look forward to ~ing, object to ~ing ~에 반대하다

Airline personnel must be dedicated to serving the passengers

The factory workers object to working overtime on Fridays

The new public gallery is devoted to displaying paintings by local artists